Deploy NodeJS app

kubectl create deployment hello-node --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.4
kubectl expose deployment hello-node --type=LoadBalancer --port=8080

Deploy the Kylie Fan Club homepage

kubectl create deployment nodejs --image=quay.io/swinches/nodejs-mongo-persistent:2.0
kubectl expose deployment nodejs --type=LoadBalancer --port=8080

Deploy hello-java-spring-boot

Deploy a simple Java Spring Boot app.

On a cluster with an Ingress controller deployed:

kubectl create deploy cheese-app --image=monodot/hello-java-spring-boot:latest
kubectl expose deployment cheese-app --port=8080
kubectl create ingress cheese-app --rule="app.cheese.tld/*=cheese-app:8080"

curl -v -H 'Host: app.cheese.tld' http://<IP OF PROXY, e.g. ENVOY>/cheese

Without an Ingress controller, just using a NodePort service:

kubectl create deploy cheese-app --image=monodot/hello-java-spring-boot:latest
kubectl expose deployment cheese-app --type NodePort --port=8080

Run whoami (useful tool for determining source IP)

kubectl create deployment whoami --image=containous/whoami:v1.5.0 --port=80
kubectl expose deploy whoami --port=80 --target-port=80 --type=ClusterIP
kubectl create ingress whoami --rule="whoami.apps.mndt.co.uk/*=whoami:80,tls=whoami-tls"


  • kubelet - this is the “agent” that runs on each node in a Kubernetes cluster.

Running locally


See k3s article.

Minikube on Fedora

Installing Minkube on Fedora:

$ sudo dnf install libvirt-daemon-kvm qemu-kvm
$ sudo systemctl enable libvirtd.service
$ sudo systemctl start libvirtd.service
$ sudo systemctl status libvirtd.service
$ sudo usermod -a -G libvirt $(whoami)
$ curl -Lo docker-machine-driver-kvm2 https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/latest/docker-machine-driver-kvm2 \
    && chmod +x docker-machine-driver-kvm2 \
    && sudo cp docker-machine-driver-kvm2 /usr/local/bin/ \
    && rm docker-machine-driver-kvm2
$ curl -Lo minikube https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/latest/minikube-linux-amd64 \
    && chmod +x minikube \
    && sudo cp minikube /usr/local/bin \
    && rm minikube

# Caution pasting this next command in zsh as it'll escape the brackets...
$ curl -Lo kubectl https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$(curl -s https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/stable.txt)/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl \
    && chmod +x kubectl \
    && sudo cp kubectl /usr/local/bin \
    && rm kubectl

# Install virsh command and the 'default.xml' config file for libvirt
$ newgrp libvirt
$ sudo dnf install libvirt-client libvirt-daemon-config-network
$ virsh net-define /usr/share/libvirt/networks/default.xml
$ virsh net-list --all      # should show a network named 'default'
$ sudo virsh net-start default

$ minikube start --vm-driver=kvm2



  • A readiness probe lets Kubernetes know when an app is ready to serve traffic.
  • A liveness probe lets Kubernetes know if an app is alive or dead. If an app is dead, Kubernetes will kill the pod and start a new one.

Example liveness and readiness checks for a Spring Boot/Camel app:

    path: /health
    port: web
  initialDelaySeconds: 180
  periodSeconds: 10
    path: /health
    port: web
  initialDelaySeconds: 10
  periodSeconds: 10
- containerPort: 8080
  name: web
  protocol: TCP

Kubernetes API

Accessing from within a Pod

Access the API from within a pod:

$ KUBE_TOKEN=$(</var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token)
$ curl -sSk -H "Authorization: Bearer $KUBE_TOKEN" \

Getting jobs

Using the Kubernetes API to get information about Jobs.

Example: Using OpenShift, log in as a user who has permissions to view jobs, then:

$ OCTOKEN=$(oc whoami -t)
$ OCJOBNAME=templatedjob-0bgrbatx
$ curl -k -H "Authorization: Bearer $OCTOKEN" https://$OCMASTER/apis/batch/v1/namespaces/$OCPROJECT/jobs/$OCJOBNAME

A running job will have a status section in the response like this:

"status": {
  "startTime": "2018-01-11T13:27:38Z",
  "active": 1

A completed job will have a status section in the response like this:

"status": {
  "conditions": [
      "type": "Complete",
      "status": "True",
      "lastProbeTime": "2018-01-11T13:28:45Z",
      "lastTransitionTime": "2018-01-11T13:28:45Z"
  "startTime": "2018-01-11T13:27:38Z",
  "completionTime": "2018-01-11T13:28:45Z",
  "succeeded": 1


Using Helm with k3s

You’ll need to tell Helm where it can find k3s kubeconfig:

export KUBECONFIG=/etc/rancher/k3s/k3s.yaml
helm install chartname chart/repo --namespace targetnamespace


Logging in

Use kubectl config view

Switching namespaces

kubectl config set-context --current --namespace <namespace-to-switch-to>

Get a pod name

ARTEMIS_POD=$(kubectl get pod -n keda-demo -l run=artemis --template '{{range .items}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}')


Jsonpath is a way of extracting data from JSON. It’s built in to the kubectl command.

Get a secret value

kubectl get secret mysecret -o jsonpath='{.data.password}' | base64 -d

Troubleshooter’s toolkit

Create a pod and run a command

kubectl run -i --restart=Never --rm test-${RANDOM} --image=ubuntu --overrides='{"kind":"Pod", "apiVersion":"v1", "spec": {"dnsPolicy":"Default"}}' -- sh -c 'cat /etc/resolv.conf'

Open a shell inside a container

kubectl exec -i -t my-pod --container main-app -- /bin/bash

Resume a shell session:

kubectl attach my-pod --container main-app -it

Start a pod with curl installed

kubectl -n gel-helm run curl -it --image=curlimages/curl -- sh

Or using the Red Hat UBI image (containerised RHEL, basically):

kubectl -n myspace run my-little-debug-pod -it --attach --image docker.io/redhat/ubi8 --command --restart=Never --rm -- sh

Debug a Deployment with a PVC

Pod not starting? Need to launch a container and step through commands?

kubectl scale deploy/mydeploy --replicas=0

# command: [ "/bin/bash", "-c", "--" ]
# args: [ "while true; do sleep 30; done;" ]

# Get the actual command for the container
podman inspect --format "entrypoint: {{.Config.Entrypoint}}, cmd: {{.Config.Cmd}}" docker.io/bitnami/ghost:5.26.1

Run a network test (curl, ping, etc.)

DNS lookup on internal/external hosts:

kubectl run -it --rm --restart=Never busybox --image=busybox:1.28 -- nslookup kubernetes.default
kubectl run -it --rm --restart=Never busybox --image=busybox:1.28 -- nslookup www.google.com

Ping a server:

kubectl run -it --rm --restart=Never busybox --image=busybox:1.28 -- server.example.com

View HTTP headers being received by a pod

kubectl -n tmp create deploy echo --image=mendhak/http-https-echo:28

kubectl -n tmp expose deploy echo --port=8080 --target-port=8080

Now create an Ingress to the Service.

Network packet sniffing with Kubeshark

Kubeshark is a pretty good tool for observing traffic. First install Kubeshark. Then:

kubeshark tap -n <namespace> <pod-name>

If this is a remote cluster, you can create a tunnel to access the Kubeshark console:

ssh -R 80:localhost:8899 nokey@localhost.run

Then visit the web address shown in the output.


Minikube: apiserver goes down (apiserver: Stopped in status):

  • Check minikube logs
  • Get the logs of the apiserver: minikube ssh then docker logs $(docker ps -a --filter name=k8s_kube-apiserver --format={{.ID}})
  • Check the status of the exited container: minikube ssh then docker inspect <container-id> - ExitCode=137 could indicate an OOM condition

NodePort service times out when you curl to it:

  • Check the configuration of kube-proxy: kubectl describe ds/kube-proxy -n kube-system
  • Look at the logs of each kube-proxy Pod to see which IP address it’s listening on:
    • See logs: kubectl logs ds/kube-proxy -n kube-system
    • e.g. “Successfully retrieved node IP:”
    • So try curl (where 123456 is your NodePort service’s port number)

Is my container actually running? I can’t find it:

  • If you’re using CRI-O, then use crictl ps to see all the running containers on the node.

Some pods can’t reach the internet… “dial tcp: lookup xxx.example.com on server misbehaving”

  • In k3s, you can kubectl get ep -n kube-system to see show the endpoints of kube-dns
  • Find out how the Pod is resolving DNS names. go inside the misbehaving pod and type cat /etc/resolv.conf. This will show which nameserver the Pod is trying to use.
  • Look at the IP of kube-dns. kubectl get svc kube-dns -n kube-system should show the IP (e.g.
  • Look at the kube-dns logs. Find the kube-dns pod and see whether it’s struggling to look up DNS entries (e.g. “AAAA: read udp> read: no route to host”)
  • These should give you some clue where the problem is. Perhaps you need to add firewall rules?